It is calculated that the population of Gozo from prehistoric to medieval times was from around 1700 to 2000. The population began to grow after the beginning of Norman rule. By 1530, the population had surpassed 5000.
The population growth suffered a great setback in 1551 when thousands were dragged into slavery and it was not before one hundred and thirty years later that it once again reached the 1530 levels. By the times, that is by 1680, the population of Gozo was scattered throughout the island.
According to a census of 1667, there were 1795 or 43.1% in Rabat residing in 566 households. In the next reliable census taken in 1842, the Rabat population had grown to 4904 but had fallen to 34.2% of the Gozitan population. At the beginning of the twentieth century, in 1901, it stood at 5057 but just 25.3% of Gozo. The growth continued steadily and, in 1948, by the middle of the century, it had grown to 6175 but only 22.4% of Gozo. In 1957, it climbed to 6357 and 23% of Gozo. Due to mass emigration in the following decade by 1967, it had fallen to 5462 and just 21% of Gozo. By 1985, it had risen again to 5968 and 23% of Gozo. According to the last census taken on 26 November 1995, the population of the City of Victoria had grown to 6524 that is 22.5% of the 29,026 living in Gozo on that day.